Platform: Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U219

Organism: Homo sapiens

Pdf version of the dendrogram

Set title:

Nanotoxicogenomic study of ZnO and TiO2 responses


Tuomela S, Autio R, Buerki-Thurnherr T, Arslan O et al. Gene expression profiling of immune-competent human cells exposed to engineered zinc oxide or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 22;8(7):e68415.

Set summary:

A comprehensive in vitro assessment of two commercial metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2 and ZnO, was performed using human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), and T cell leukemia-derived cell line (Jurkat). TiO2 nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic whereas ZnO nanoparticles caused dose-dependent cell death. Subsequently, global gene expression profiling was performed to identify signaling pathways underlying the cytotoxicity caused by ZnO nanoparticles. Analysis was done with doses, 1µg/ml and 10µg/ml after 6 and 24 hours of exposure. Interestingly, 2703 genes were significantly differentially expressed in HMDM upon exposure to 10µg/ml ZnO nanoparticles, while in MDDCs only 12 genes were affected. In Jurkat cells, 980 genes were differentially expressed. It is noteworthy that the gene expression of metallothioneins was upregulated in all the three cell types. In addition to the common ZnO-inducible changes, a notable proportion of the genes were regulated in a cell type-specific manner. Using a panel of ZnO nanoparticles, we obtained an additional support that the cellular response to ZnO nanoparticles is caused by particle dissolution. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the top biological processes disturbed in HMDM and Jurkat cells were regulating cell death and growth. In addition, genes controlling immune system development were affected. Bioinformatics assessment showed that the top human disease category associated with ZnO-responsive genes in both HMDM and Jurkat cells was cancer. Overall, the study revealed novel genes and pathways for mediating ZnO nanoparticle-induced toxicity and demonstrated the value of assessing nanoparticle responses through combined transcriptomics and bioinformatics approach.

Sample_name Description Type Treatment Dose NP_size
GSM961351 Jurkat_rep4_ctr_24h_0 Jurkat no treatment - -
GSM961354 Jurkat_rep5_ctr_24h_0 Jurkat no treatment - -
GSM961356 Jurkat_rep6_ctr_24h_0 Jurkat no treatment - -
GSM961331 Jurkat_rep4_ZnO-4_24h_10 Jurkat ZnO-4 10µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961334 Jurkat_rep5_ZnO-4_24h_10 Jurkat ZnO-4 10µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961336 Jurkat_rep6_ZnO-4_24h_10 Jurkat ZnO-4 10µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961338 Jurkat_rep4_ZnO-4_24h_25 Jurkat ZnO-4 25µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961341 Jurkat_rep5_ZnO-4_24h_25 Jurkat ZnO-4 25µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961343 Jurkat_rep6_ZnO-4_24h_25 Jurkat ZnO-4 25µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961346 Jurkat_rep4_ZnO-4_24h_50 Jurkat ZnO-4 50µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961348 Jurkat_rep5_ZnO-4_24h_50 Jurkat ZnO-4 50µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961350 Jurkat_rep6_ZnO-4_24h_50 Jurkat ZnO-4 50µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961324 Jurkat_rep4_ZnO-4_24h_100 Jurkat ZnO-4 100µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961326 Jurkat_rep5_ZnO-4_24h_100 Jurkat ZnO-4 100µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm
GSM961329 Jurkat_rep6_ZnO-4_24h_100 Jurkat ZnO-4 100µg/ml 8 ± 2.5nm